Bearings optimised for hydraulic pumps and motors

Schaeffler (UK) Ltdvisit website


The Schaeffler Group has developed a number of bearings for which the designs have been optimised to suit the new Sauer-Danfoss H1 series of axial-piston pumps and motors.

Bearings optimised for hydraulic pumps and motorsNew Sauer-Danfoss H1 series axial-piston pumps and motors benefit from Schaeffler's optimised X-life cylindrical and tapered rolling bearings, resulting in overall efficiencies of the pumps and motors increasing by around 2 per cent - thereby enabling customers to benefit from lower energy usage.

Energy-saving potential for the end users of the pumps and motors is significant; for example, by utilising a new H1 hydraulic pump and two H1 hydraulic motors, a wheel loader that has a drive power of 140kW can save around 9kW. Projected onto 1000 wheel loaders operating for eight hours a day, annual savings potential could reach 26,000MWh. This is equivalent to the average energy consumption of more than 6500 households with three occupants. This results in savinsg of approximately approximately EUR5million (at EUR0.21/kWh) or around 16,000 tonnes of CO2 per year.

Increasingly stringent emissions regulations and rising energy costs are boosting demand for more efficient machines and drive systems, including the optimisation of power train designs for diesel engines in order to reduce vehicle fuel consumption.

In non-automotive applications, various types of hydraulic units are replacing conventional power transmission systems. Configurable axial-piston pumps and motors, for example, are specifically designed for use with electrical machine controls.

Design optimisation

In developing the H1 series, as well as optimising and improving the electro-hydraulic system itself, Sauer-Danfoss also focused on optimising the base components within the hydraulic pumps and motors. The various bearing positions on the pumps and motors were scrutinised in order to identify where any improvements could be made. New, low-friction, optimised bearings from Schaeffler had a significant influence on reducing power losses, installation space and weight across the H1 range.

A new option for an H1 axial piston pump in swashplate configuration was achieved by using new swashplate cradle bearings. Here, compact, low-friction cylindrical roller bearings were used to support the drive shaft. Compared to the previous version, the installation space and weight were substantially reduced and efficiency was increased by around 2 per cent.

Schaeffler's new X-life (premium quality) cylindrical roller bearings with optimised rib contact have made an important contribution to these design improvements. The special curvature of the roller end faces improves the contact geometry between roller end faces and the bearing ribs to minimise contact pressures. This enables the formation of a load-carrying lubricant film that separates the roller end faces and ribs. This means that the new cylindrical roller bearings can operate with a much higher ratio of the axial load to the radial load. The ratio that is achievable is 0.6 (ie permissible axial load is 60 per cent of the radial load). Conventional cylindrical roller bearings normally withstand a maximum value of only 40 per cent of the radial load. At the same time, the frictional torque is as much as 50 per cent lower, depending on the magnitude of the axial load. The benefits are lower operating temperatures, higher efficiency and reduced energy consumption.

Improved sealing

H1 axial piston motors in swashplate configuration utilise low-friction, optimised X-life tapered roller bearings. In addition, a newly developed steel sealing ring significantly improves the sealing characteristics of the hydraulic piston motor. In this way, the length and weight of the axial piston motor can be reduced. Furthermore, the power losses have been cut by approximately 2 per cent compared to the previous version.

In the X-life tapered roller bearings, optimised rib contact is also critical. Under axial load, the frictional torque of conventional tapered roller bearings increases markedly. Schaeffler therefore redesigned the bearing geometry, surfaces and materials, as well as the dimensional and running accuracies of the new X-life tapered roller bearings. As a result, these bearings now yield up to 20 per cent higher basic dynamic load ratings, resulting in an increase of around 70 per cent in basic rating life. At the same time, higher dimensional and running accuracies, combined with improved surface topography, reduce the frictional torque by up to 75 per cent compared to conventional bearings. The contact geometry of the inner ring rib and the roller end face were also redesigned in order to reduce friction. This reduces the stress on the lubricant in the bearing, enabling maintenance intervals to be extended. Furthermore, the X-life tapered roller bearing is quieter.

For more information on Schaeffler's range of X-life cylindrical and tapered rolling bearings, call the Marketing Department on +44 (0)121 313 5870 or email .

© Copyright 2006-14 Damte Ltd.